Perseus Proteomics Inc.
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Diagnostic Agents

We develop extracorporeal diagnostic agents to quantify trace molecular biomarkers expressed by tumor cells or disease cells in the blood. These diagnostics will allow doctors to assess a patients’ likelihood of responding to a given therapy or monitor the progression of a patients’ disease state, thereby facilitating a more precise and effective choice from the available therapeutic options. We look at disease as a process from preservation through diagnostication, prognosis, and treatment rather than a state, and we will realize such “Theranostics”, as a new approach to disease management.

A vascular inflammation marker, Pentraxin 3 (PTX3/TSG-14)

2008/9/25

Pentraxin 3 appears to be an excellent predicative biomarker for acute coronary syndrome.

Perseus Proteomics have established a high sensitivity PTX3 detection method(*1), which we expect to be a breakthrough biomarker capable of predicting patients' risk of atherosclerosis in the earliest stages.

We start selling PTX3 ELISA System “Human Pentraxin3/TSG-14 ELISA System” for research use.

About our “human Pentraxin3 / TSG-14 ELISA System”


An introduction of a vascular inflammatory marker, Pentraxin 3 (PTX3)

Many inflammatory mediators are closely-involved in atherosclerosis, plaque formation and rupture(*2). One of the most famous inflammation mediators is CRP(C-reactive protein) which has been widely used as an inflammatory biomarker for predicting the occurrence of future cardiovascular events.

CRP and SAP (Serum Amyloid P component) are referred to as classical short pentraxins and are acute phase proteins produced from the liver in response to inflammatory mediators(*3-4)

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a recently identified member of the pentraxin family, is referred to as a long pentraxin and contains a unique PTX3 domain not found in CRP or SAP. In contrast to CRP, PTX3 is produced from the major cell types involved in atherosclerotic lesions, namely vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and nutrophils in response to inflammatory stimuli(*5-10). Moreover, CRP is produced by the liver and represents a systemic response to local inflammation, whereas PTX3 is rapidly produced directly from damaged tissues and directly reflects the inflammatory state of the vasculature. PTX3 levels have been reported to be significantly elevated in acute myocardial infarction(*11), and accordingly, statin treatment significantly decreases PTX3 levels(*12). Due to the fact that PTX3 is able to reflect ACS condition better than CRP, it is highly possible that PTX3 is a superior biomarker to predict future cardiovascular events.


Contact PTX3 customer service by e-mail
ptx3@ppmx.com

Amino acid sequence of PTX3 and other pentraxin family members
Amino acid sequence of PTX3 and other pentraxin family members

Pentraxin in humoral immate immunity
Pentraxin in humoral immate immunity

Publications based on human Pentraxin 3/TSG-14 ELISA System

1  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 ; 27(1) : 161-7.
Establishment of a High Sensitivity Plasma Assay for Human Pentraxin3 as a Marker for Unstable Angina Pectoris
Inoue K, Sugiyama A, Reid PC, Ito Y, Miyauchi K, Mukai S, Sagara M, Miyamoto K, Satoh H, Kohno I, Kurata T, Ota H, Mantovani A, Hamakubo T, Daida H, and Kodama T.

2 Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 ; 2(5) : 889-97.
Plasma pentraxin 3 in patients with chronic kidney disease: associations with renal function, protein-energy wasting, cardiovascular disease, and mortality.
Tong M, Carrero JJ, Qureshi AR, Anderstam B, Heimburger O, Barany P, Axelsson J, Alvestrand A, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B, Suliman ME.

3 Cell Immunol. 2007 ; 248(2) : 86-94.
Lipopolysaccharide induced expression of pentraxin 3 in human neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages.
Imamura M, Kawasaki T, Savchenko AS, Ohashi R, Jiang S, Miyamoto K, Ito Y, Iwanari H, Sagara M, Tanaka T, Hamakubo T, Kodama T, Uchiyama M, Naito M.

4 J Pathol. 2008 ; 215(1) : 48-55.
Expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in human atherosclerotic lesions.
Savchenko A, Imamura M, Ohashi R, Jiang S, Kawasaki T, Hasegawa G, Emura I, Iwanari H, Sagara M, Tanaka T, Hamakubo T, Kodama T, Naito M.

5 Atherosclerosis 2008 ; 197(1) : 368-74.
Pentraxin3 is a novel marker for stent-induced inflammation and neointimal thickening
Kotooka N, Inoue T, Fujimatsu D, Morooka T, Hashimoto S, Hikichi Y, Uchida T, Sugiyama A, Node K.

6 Am Heart J. 2008 ; 155(1) : 75-81.
Pentraxin 3, a new marker for vascular inflammation, predicts adverse clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure.
Suzuki S, Takeishi Y, Niizeki T, Koyama Y, Kitahara T, Sasaki T, Sagara M, Kubota I.

7 Dig Dis Sci. 2008 ; 53(7) : 1910-6.
Increased Expression of Long Pentraxin PTX3 in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Kato S, Ochiai M, Sakurada T, Ohno S, Miyamoto K, Sagara M, Ito M, Takeuchi K, Imaki J, Itoh K, Yakabi K.

8 Int J Cardiol. 2008 ; 130(1) : 19-22.
Prognostic value of pentraxin 3 in patients with chronic heart failure.
Kotooka N, Inoue T, Aoki S, Anan M, Komoda H, Node K.

9 Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009 ; 47(4) : 471-7.
Determination of physiological plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels in healthy poulations.
Yamasaki K, Kurimura M, Kasai T, Sagara M, Kodama T, Inoue K.

10 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 289-97
Pentraxin 3
Inoue K.

11 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 298-306
The role of PTX3 in emergency and critical care
Yamaguchi N.

12 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 307-12
Pentraxin 3 as a cardiovascular biomarker
Kotooka N.

13 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 313-20
The role of PTX3 in the pentraxin family
Maemura K, Shiga T.

14 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 321-8
Clinical meaning value of long pentraxin PTX3 for patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Kato S, Yakabi K.

15 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 329-38
Neutrophils and pentraxin 3
Naito M, Savchenko S. A, Inoue A.

16 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 339-46
Metabolic syndrome and pentraxin 3
Ogawa T, Imamura T, Kitamura K.

17 Journal of Analytical Bio-Science 2010 ; 33(4) : 347-54
Coronary plaque, thrombosis and PTX3
Hatakeyama K, Asada Y.

References

*1 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2006
Establishment of a High Sensitivity Plasma Assay for Human Pentraxin3 as a Marker for Unstable Angina Pectoris
Inoue K.et al .

*2. Nature. 2000 Sep 14;407(6801):233-41. PMID: 11001066
Atherosclerosis.
Lusis AJ. et al.

*3. Immunol Today. 1994 Feb;15(2):74-80. PMID: 7512342
The acute phase response.
Baumann H. et al.

*4. Immunol Today. 1994 Feb;15(2):81-8. PMID: 8155266
The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein
Steel DM. et al.

*5. J Immunol. 1994 Oct 15;153(8):3700-7. PMID: 7523502
Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase proteins.
Lee GW. et al.

*6. J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 26;272(52):32817-23. PMID: 9407058
Multimer formation and ligand recognition by the long pentraxin PTX3.
Bottazzi B. et al.

*7. Blood. 1996 Mar 1;87(5):1862-72. PMID: 8634434
Cloning of mouse ptx3, a new member of the pentraxin gene family expressed at extrahepatic sites.
Introna M. et al.

*8. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:337-66. Review. PMID: 15771574
Pentraxins at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility.
Garlanda C. et al.

*9. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28;272(13):8172-8. PMID: 9079634
Characterization of the promoter for the human long pentraxin PTX3. Role of NF-kappaB in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta regulation.
Basile A, et al.

*10. J Exp Med. 2007;204(4):793-804.
The humoral pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is stored in neutrophil granules and localizes in extracellular traps.
Jaillon, S. et al.

*11. Circulation. 2000 Aug 8;102(6):636-41. PMID: 10931803
PTX3, A prototypical long pentraxin, is an early indicator of acute myocardial infarction in humans.
Peri G. et al.

*12. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2002;9(4):178-83. PMID: 12226549
The effect of statins on mRNA levels of genes related to inflammation, coagulation, and vascular constriction in HUVEC. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Morikawa S, et al.



Other References

1. Blood. 1994;84(10):3483-93.
Inducible expression of PTX3, a new member of the pentraxin family, in human mononuclear phagocytes.
Alles, VV. et al.

2. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2004;15(2-3):129-46.
Cytokine-induced gene expression at the crossroads of innate immunity, inflammation and fertility: TSG-6 and PTX3/TSG-14.
Wisniewski, HG. and Vilcek, J.

3. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79(5):909-12.
The long pentraxin PTX3 as a link among innate immunity, inflammation, and female fertility.
Bottazzi, B. et al.

4. J. Neuroimmunol. 2000;106(1-2):87-94.
Inducible expression of the long pentraxin PTX3 in the central nervous system.
Polentarutti, N et al.

5. Development. 2004;131(7):1577-86.
PTX3 plays a key role in the organization of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix and in vivo fertilization.
Salustri, A. et al.

6. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(9):1837-42.
Pentraxin 3 inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent activation of smooth muscle cells in vitro and neointima formation in vivo.
Camozzi, M. et al.

7. Immunity. 2005;22(5):551-60.
Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoral innate immunity receptors.
Jeannin, P. et al.

8. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(31):22190-7.
Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component.
Breviario, F. et al.

9. Infect Immun. 1997;65(4):1345-50.
Expression of a long pentraxin, PTX3, by monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan.
Vouret-Craviari, V. et al.

10. Blood. 2000;96(13):4300-6.
The long pentraxin PTX3 binds to apoptotic cells and regulates their clearance by antigen-presenting dendritic cells.
Rovere, P. et al.

11. Nature. 2002;420(6912):182-6.
Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response.
Garlanda, C. et al.

12. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33(2):465-73.
Biochemical and functional characterization of the interaction between pentraxin 3 and C1q.
Nauta, AJ. et al.

13. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75(4):649-56.
PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages.
Diniz, SN. et al.

14. J Immunol. 2005;175(12):8303-11.
TNFalpha-induced long pentraxin PTX3 expression in human lung epithelial cells via JNK.
Han, B. et al.

15. Blood. 2006;107(1):151-8.
The pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is recruited at the synapse between dying and dendritic cells, and edits the cross-presentation of self, viral, and tumor antigens.
Baruah, P. et al.

16. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79(4):797-802.
Regulation of PTX3, a key component of humoral innate immunity in human dendritic cells: stimulation by IL-10 and inhibition by IFN-gamma.
Doni, A. et al.

17. Cell Immunol. 2007;248(2):86-94.
Lipopolysaccharide induced expression of pentraxin 3 in human neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages.
Imamura, M. et al.

18. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53(7):1910-6.
Increased expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Kato, S. et al.

19. J Pathol. 2008;215(1):48-55.
Expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in human atherosclerotic lesions.
Savchenko, A. et al.

20. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44(12):2841-50.
PTX3 in small-vessel vasculitides: an independent indicator of disease activity produced at sites of inflammation.
Fazzini, F. et al.

21. Circulation. 2004;110(16):2349-54.
Prognostic significance of the long pentraxin PTX3 in acute myocardial infarction.
Latini R. et al.

22. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(5):889-97.
Plasma pentraxin 3 in patients with chronic kidney disease: associations with renal function, protein-energy wasting, cardiovascular disease, and mortality.
Tong, M. et al.

23. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197(1):368-74.
Pentraxin3 is a novel marker for stent-induced inflammation and neointimal thickening.
Kotooka, N. et al.

24. Int J Cardiol. 2008;130(1):19-22.
Prognostic value of pentraxin 3 in patients with chronic heart failure.
Kotooka, N. et al.

25. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(4):976-85.
Novel links between the long pentraxin 3, endothelial dysfunction, and albuminuria in early and advanced chronic kidney disease.
Suliman, ME. et al.

26. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(4):471-7.
Determination of physiological plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels in healthy populations.
Yamasaki K, et al.

[Related item]
About human Pentraxin3/TSG-14 ELISA System
Human Pentraxin3/TSG-14 ELISA System pamphlet
Human Pentraxin3/TSG-14 ELISA System instruction