PTX3, a member of the pentraxin family, is a long pentraxin.
The short pentraxin CRP belonging to the pentraxin family that is produced in the liver is a known arteriosclerosis marker and is elevated during infection. Therefore, CRP levels presumably reflect systemic and inflammatory reactions. In contrast to CRP, PTX3 is directly produced by macrophages involved in arteriosclerosis as well as by vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscles, and neutrophils following stimulation with IL-1 or TNF.
PTX3 is associated with human heart disease and is a potential predictor of acute myocardial infarction. PTX3 level has been shown to increase during the early stages of myocardial infarction. Recent reports have suggested that PTX3 reduces vascular diseases occurring during sepsis and enables early detection of pulmonary hyperemia and is associated with bone metabolism.
PTX3 concentration in blood is expected as indicator for the degree of direct vascular inflammation.